Saturday, February 11, 2012

Cold War Warriors: The Walther P1

Walther. For firearms enthusiasts, the name conjures up James Bond, World War II, and fine German engineering. Founded by Carl Walther in 1886, the company is one of the oldest firearms manufacturers in the world, and to this day makes some very fine weapons. I could write a few paragraphs about Walther and its contribution to firearms design and history (and maybe I will at some point), but not now.

Our subject this month is the Walther P1.

Typical Walther P1. Purty, ain't it?

This pistol is a bit of an interesting piece. Its predecessor, the famous P.38, needs no introduction, but for the benefit of the uninitiated I'll go into some detail here. The P.38 has its roots in pre-war Nazi Germany. The Germans were looking for a military side arm to replace the legendary P.08 Luger pistol. See, the Luger, fine pistol and incredible example of Old World craftsmanship as it was, simply was too labor intensive and therefore too expensive to produce. And honestly, when it comes to winning battles and wars, pistols really have a small role to play (unless you’re Sergeant York, but he had balls the size of cantaloupes, and the marksmanship skills to go with them, which makes him the exception that proves the rule), so equipping your armed forces with hand-fitted, expensive pistols doesn’t make much sense. Especially when you’re gearing up to conquer Europe, and maybe the world, you’ve probably got better things you could spend Marks on.

Enter the Walther P.38. Accepted by Germany in 1938 (hence the designation), the P.38 offered some significant advantages over the old Luger. First, it was of course cheaper to manufacture. Secondly, the P.38 was one of the first double-action semi-auto pistols fielded to a military force. This meant that a soldier could carry the P.38 with a round in the chamber, hammer down, safely, and all he had to do to get the pistol into action was pull the trigger. Granted, it was a longer, heavier pull than the single action, but it was simple, and in a battlefield situation, Simple is Good. Of course, after the first double-action pull, the pistol cocked itself automatically and the subsequent rounds were all fired single-action. Like the Luger, the P.38 had an eight round magazine and fired the 9mm Parabellum cartridge. The Germans must have liked them, because they made over a million from 1939 to 1945 in three different factories.
A late war P.38, made in the Spreewerke factory. P.38s were produced at three different locations during the war.

As we all know, WWII didn’t work out so well for the Germans. Germany was divided, its infrastructure was in shambles from the Allied bombing campaigns, and its manufacturing capabilities had been completely obliterated. Out of the ashes and with a lot of Allied help, the Federal Republic of Germany (also known as West Germany) arose. By the mid 1950s, the world was deep into the Cold War. Times had changed: where once the Soviets had been allies (of convenience, perhaps, but allies nonetheless), they were now the threat. West Germany, as an essentially new country, needed many things, and with the prospect of a billion Commies pouring through the Fulda Gap at a moment’s notice, a competent military force was somewhere near the top of the list. Somewhere on that list for equipping and fielding that military was the need for a new sidearm.

Which brings us to the Walther P1. In a most un-German like move, instead of completely reinventing and over-engineering the wheel, the Germans went with what they already had. The Walther factory had been destroyed during the war, but the patents, know-how, and people were still around. The P.38 had served the Wehrmacht well, so why couldn’t it serve the new Bundeswehr equally as well? Walther retooled and modified the venerable warhorse, giving it a lighter aluminum alloy frame vs. the all-steel frame of the P.38. This “new” pistol was given the moniker P1 in 1963. In addition to the aluminum alloy frame, the new P1 had improved sights and a few other minor tweaks under the hood. The P1 was manufactured into the 1980s, with some additional improvements along the way in the form of a beefier slide (known to collectors as the “fat slide”), and a strengthening “hex pin” in the frame where the pistol’s locking block engaged the frame.

After 40+ years of service, the German military surplused the P1. Many were rebuilt and given the slide and hex pin upgrades, and have since found their way to US shores as “obsolete” firearms. They are anything but that. There’s another aluminum alloy, 9mm, double-action, semi-automatic pistol in service today that shares similarities with the P1/P.38. Germany’s loss is our gain, because today, you can own an excellent to like-new example of one of these Cold War Warriors for around $300-$350. The upside to collecting Cold War weapons is that the vast majority of the time, they didn't see any action, so they're in fantastic shape. I purchased mine from http://www.aimsurplus.com/ a year or so ago. It was mechanically perfect, with a mirror bore, and with just a touch of finish wear on the high points. It came with a neato German issue Flecktarn holster and two, eight round magazines stamped with NSNs.

My particular pistol was made in October, 1979. Here she is:



My Walther P1 in excellent+ condition...it's almost as old as I am.

Shooting the P1 is an interesting experience. The aluminum frame and steel slide makes it a little top heavy, and there’s some muzzle flip to be had, but it’s overall a very pleasant-shooting pistol. I’ll be frank and say that this gun is one that I don’t shoot particularly well with. That’s not to say it’s inaccurate: far from it. In fact, when I want to practice marksmanship fundamentals like sight alignment, trigger pull, and breathing, I shoot my P1. If I do my part, it’s on target, but if I don’t, it is an unforgiving handgun (interestingly enough, my Makarov PM, which is the Soviet Cold War counterpart to the P1, shoots better than I do…more to follow on that in next month’s entry).

Some folks say you shouldn’t shoot hi-powered 9mm loads through these guns, as they’re 1) used, surplus pistols, and 2) have aluminum alloy frames. Personally, I think that’s good advice, and there’s really no reason to shoot +P, high pressure self-defense ammo through these guns. If you want a 9mm that will handle abuse and come back for more, get a Glock. If you want a piece of history you can shoot standard ammo through (Winchester “white box” or standard 124 gr 9mm ammo works fine), then the P1 is right up your alley. Loading your own ammo is even better, as you can really make some nice target loads that are very easy on the gun.

The rumor is that Germany is destroying all remaining stocks of P1s as part of a UN arms agreement, and as such, no more will be exported. If true, this an absolute shame. It also means that prices will rise on these guns, so if you want one, get one now. They’re classified as Curios and Relics by the BATF, for those who have a FFL03 license, and frankly, they’re worth every penny at the asking price. If you’re thinking about buying one, don’t: buy two instead. You won’t regret it. If you do, you can sell one to me.


4 comments:

  1. I have one of these. The one I have is a most interesting collection of parts. It has a really early serial number, 08 and something (I don't have the gun where I am and so can't give you the serial # as I don't have it memorized) and yet it has an alloy frame, with hex support, and a 9.93 date. I am guessing that's about as late as it gets! It also has a fat slide, and I am told, a later barrel though I don't know how to tell the difference between early and late post war barrels.
    I am wondering at what date did P1 production actually stop?

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  2. I also have one of these and find it to be one of the best surplus pistols that I own. I love target shooting with it and ammo is available. Thanks for the very informative article on the P1. I enjoy all of your articles. Keep up the excellent work.

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  3. I just recently bought one 2 days ago. I have been reading on it relentlessly, and im regretting this buy less and less. it is a really cool piece I have all matching numbers on my pistol and for 425 dollars and a trip to fayyettville, worth it! thank you for the informative article I look to buy another one if I find one.

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  4. I have had a First edition P1 and now have a Second edition P1. It has the pin and Fat Slide. It is accurate if you are. It isn't if you aren't. Not a very forgiving pistol! The only thing I don't like is how it throws the empty cases right at your head! Otherwise I love it.

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